garnets are a category of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. all species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition.
amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. the name comes from a greek word, a refered to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. the ancient greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.
emerald is a gemstone and a type of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. emerald in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE.