gemstone also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum . ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, together with amethyst, sapphire, emerald, and diamond.
emerald is a gemstone and a type of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. emerald in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE.
turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminum. turquoise has a lower-than-ideal hardness and durability for use in certain types of jewelry.
sapphire is a precious gemstone, a type of the mineral corundum, include of aluminum oxide with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, vanadium, or magnesium.
peridot is gem-quality olivine and a silicate mineral. its green color is affiliate on the iron contents within the structure of the gem. the molecular structure of peridot consist of isomorphic olivine, silicate, magnesium and iron in an orthorhombic crystal system.
diamond is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones. they have been used as decorative items since ancient times. in the middle ages, the gemstone was considered a stone that could provide healing powers, curing depression and opening the heart.
garnets are a category of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. all species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition.
topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine. topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and the crystals are often prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.
agate is a common stone formation, consisting of chalcedony and quartz as its main components, consisting of a wide variety of colors. agates are primarily formed within volcanic and metamorphic stones.
lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep-blue metamorphic stone used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
jade refers to an ornamental mineral, often known for its green types, though appears naturally in other colors as well, especially yellow and white. jade can refer to either of two different silicate minerals: nephrite, or jadeite.
yellow sapphire is a gem of the corundum family and is a twin of ruby and blue sapphire. it is available in yellow, golden and orange colors. the highest quality is known to be of lemon-yellow color. the color in yellow sapphire is of iron and titanium.
opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica. because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classify as minerals.
alexandrite is the highly regarded color changing variety of chrysoberyl. the color of alexandrite changes under different lighting conditions. if viewed in daylight, its color is greenish blue to dark yellow-green.
amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. the name comes from a greek word, a refered to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. the ancient greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.
Amber is a fossilized tree resin that has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.
Aquamarine, named for the Latin phrase "water of the sea", is the blue to blue-green variety Beryl. Beryl also contains other gem varieties, including Emerald, and some lesser known varieties such as Morganite and Heliodor.