What is a diamond ?
Definition of diamond :
Diamond is a rare and natural mineral composed of carbon. Each carbon atom in a diamond is surrounded by four other carbon atoms and are connected by strong covalent bonds, one of the strongest types of chemical bonds. This simple, uniform and strong makeup is one of the most durable, stable and versatile materials known.
Diamond is the hardest natural material known in the world. Diamond is also chemically resistant and has the highest thermal conductivity of any natural material. These properties make diamonds suitable for use as cutting tools and other items that require high durability. Diamonds also have special optical properties compared to other stones, such as high refractive index, high dispersion and adamantine luster.
These properties have made diamonds the most popular gemstone in the world, allowing them to be used in special lenses that require durability and performance.
What is the lexical origin of the word "diamond" ?
The word "diamond" comes from the Greek adamao, which means "I tame" or "I surrender." From time immemorial, the adamas adjective has been used to describe the hardest substance known to men. It eventually became synonymous with the word diamond. Adamas is believed to have previously referred to the second hardest mineral, the tombstone (a type of sapphire gemstone) or something else in general.
How Do Diamonds Form ?
Contrary to many people's beliefs, diamonds are not made of coal.
Many people believe that diamonds are the result of the metamorphism of coal. This idea is still the story of "how diamonds are formed" in many science classes.
Coal has seldom - ever - played a role in the creation of diamonds. In fact, many of the most ancient diamonds are much older than the first terrestrial plants - the source material for coal! This alone should be sufficient reason to refute the hypothesis that the earth's diamond reserves are composed of coal.
Another problem with this hypothesis is that coal seams are sedimentary rocks that usually occur as horizontal or nearly horizontal rock units. nonetheless, the source rocks of diamonds are vertical pipes filled with igneous rocks.
The four processes are thought to be responsible for almost all natural diamonds found on or near Earth. One of these processes makes up almost 100% of all diamonds mined so far. The remaining three are scarce sources of commercial diamonds. These processes rarely - if ever - involve coal.
Diamond types :
D-F : colorless
G-J : near colorless
K-M : slightly tinted
N-R : very light yellow
S-Z : light yellow or brown
The ideal diamond is completely colorless. This type is the most expensive diamond. Although most diamonds look colorless, they are actually slightly yellow or brown.The Gemological Institute of America (GIA, grades color alphabetically from D (totally colorless) to Z (heavily tinted).
The difference in grading is very subtle and is mostly not visible to the naked eye. Diamonds with clear colors like K and above can still be beautiful if they have good sharpness and cut. Only N grade diamonds and above have a color that is visible to the naked eye. Beyond S, the color becomes more intense. Natural colored diamonds are available in all shades and colors of the rainbow. The most popular colors and types of diamonds are a combination of pink, blue, brown, yellow, orange, green and red. Yellow is the most common natural color in diamonds
Red, white, green and blue diamonds are very rare types of diamonds.
CUT : The cut is related to the fit, finish, symmetry and luster of the diamond. These are the most important factors that determine the intensity and shine of a diamond. A cut diamond is proportionate, symmetrical and polished. These types of diamonds are usually the most expensive. Cut diamonds are usually sold at high prices and weak diamonds at discounted prices.
Diamond Anatomy : The width and depth of the cut affect on how light moves inside the diamond and how it exits in the form of brilliance.
Clarity : clarity of a diamond is measured using the following distinctions. Clearly, different types of diamonds are measured depending on the quantity and visibility of the defect.
FL - Absolutely flawless.
IF (Internally Flawless) - External defects can be removed by polishing more
VVS1 - VVS2 (Very Very Slightly Included) - Only a specialist can detect a defect with a 10X microscope. By definition, if a specialist can see a defect above a diamond, it is a VVS2. This is a VVS1 if the specialist can only detect the defect when viewing the bottom of the stone.
diamond VVS1 clear diamonds have no internal black mark. Then they are in the group "No Dosham" or "No Black".
S VS1 - VS2 (very little included) - Defects visible with a 10X microscope, but not clear (defect detection takes more than 10 seconds).
I SI1 - SI2 (slightly included) - Defects are easily visible with a 10X microscope.
1 I1 - I3 (included) - Defects are quite obvious and visible to the naked eye.
Carat : Size is the most obvious factor that determines the amount of diamonds. The price of a diamond increases exponentially depending on its size.
By definition, 1 carat is 200 mg. Because most diamonds sold on the market weigh less than 1 carat, carats are usually divided into "points". There are 100 points in one carat. Therefore, a diamond weighing 4.3 carats would be a "75-point diamond".
1 carat = 200 mg = 100 points.
Carat weight is not a factor that indicates the quality of a diamond. While some other quality criteria have a greater impact on the quality of certain types of diamonds, the grade only shows the size of the diamond in terms of weight. 0.50 - 0.75 carat diamonds are very popular in size and value. Finding large diamonds in mines is less common than finding small diamonds, so large diamonds are much more valuable.
top 5 biggest diamond mines in the world :
The world's ten largest diamond mines with measurable reserves contain more than one billion carats of recoverable diamonds. Russia has half of the world's largest diamond mines, while Botswana has two.
Aikhal: Aikhal is located in Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Russia, the largest diamond mine in the world.
Javanwang: In Botswana, there is an open pit mine called the Javanwang Diamond Mine, located 160 miles southwest of Gaborone.
Udachny: The Udachny Diamond Mine, located in the Yakutia region of Russia, is the third largest diamond mine in the world in terms of reserves. The mine is owned by Alrosa and is operated by the Udachny Mining and Processing Unit.
Nyurba: Nyurba is an open pit mine located 200 km northwest of Nyurba, Russia. . It is owned by Alrosa and operated by the Nyorba Mining and Processing Unit.
Orapa : The Orapa diamond mine is located 240km west of Francistown, central Botswana.
The world's largest diamonds :
The average diamond size is 1 to 3 carats. The largest diamond in the world is many times over and of inestimable value. Let's get to know the top 5 diamonds so far.
Cullinan: Cullinan is the largest rough diamond ever found and is the source of 105 famous diamonds including the famous Cullinan I and Cullinan II. Discovered in 1905 at the Top Mine mine near Pretoria, South Africa, it weighed a staggering 3106.75 carats before it was cut into 105 different diamonds by the Ascher brothers from Amsterdam.
Lesedi La Rona: Lesedi La Rona or "Our Life" in Tswana (Botswana) is the second largest colorless diamond in the world. The rough diamond was found in 2015 at the Caro mine and weighed 1,010 carats at the time. A year later, the rough stone sold for $ 53 million.
The Excelsior Diamond : At 995.2 carats, Excelsior Diamond ranks third in its lineup. Found in South Africa and took a long time to sell diamonds. Apparently there was no one who could afford it. After a while, it was sent to Amsterdam to cut into 10 smaller gemstones. Finally, the largest diamond, Excelsior I, sold for $ 2.64 million.
The Star of Sierra Leone : The Star of Sierra Leone of 968.9 carats is the largest diamond extracted from the mine of the same name. It was soon sold to Harry Winston for $ 2.5 million, cut into 17 separate diamonds. The largest gemstone still left was 54 carats.
The Lesotho Legend: This stone, the size of two golf balls, weighs approximately 910 carats and therefore ranks fifth. The diamond is not only very large but also has a color rating of D and a resolution score of IIa. These are the best points a colorless diamond can get. As a result, the Lesotho legend Antwerp diamond was sold for more than $ 40 million during the tender.
Medical applications of diamond :
Diamond has been used in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical and biological properties. In this article, the methods of preparing artificial diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent advances include the use of diamonds in prostheses, measurement applications, imaging, and drug delivery. These developments show that diamond-containing structures will make significant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in the coming years.
Color Diamonds and Religion :
Diamonds used in religion in recent decades are important and symbolic for beliefs and practices. For example, acira and vajra may symbolize thunder, fire, sun, or lightning, and are called dazzling flashes produced by rocks, commonly called invisible powers.
In some religious philosophies, diamonds are dedicated to the planet Venus, which is under Libra and Taurus. These stones are also precious pieces with mystical, healing and magical properties. Many religious statues and altars are decorated with colored diamonds to show deep interest and value to the Creator.
According to some religious cultures, the luminous properties of colored diamonds provide extraordinary power. They are believed to be a great sign of generosity, virtue as well as courage in wars. A garden or house decorated with colored diamonds in every corner is wise to storms, diseases and lightning.
Hence, diamonds are used to treat people with mental illness. They cast out spirits and demons or wild dreams and spells. There are some beliefs that diamond particles are a mythical poison. This belief about poisoning arises after discouraging theft.
The importance of colored diamonds in different religions around the world has certain symbols and beliefs that are well used for such sacrifices. Today, many religious statues and jewels are completely decorated with these precious stones to show great love and compassion for God, the Creator. They are also a symbol of faith and dignity.
Popular shapes of diamonds :
The term "cut" can also refer to the style of the diamond cut and It is difficult for many people to choose the right diamond. Diamond jewelry has various options from traditional to fancy shapes. Below is a comprehensive list of the most popular diamond shapes and their features.
Round : The round brilliant cut is the most popular shape of diamond. For hundreds of years, diamond cutters have been working with this cut to maximize its brilliance and fire. While this cut offers great inflexion within the four Cs, you will want to choose higher quality grades to send out the most brilliance within a round diamond.
Pear: Combining round and branded slices, the teardrop style of pear diamonds is exceptional. The slim pear shape gives the fingers and hands a slimmer, while creating a soft and delicate appearance. Pear diamonds are cut to produce maximum shine, so it is important to look for perfect symmetry.
Emerald: Emerald cut diamonds have a unique rectangular optical appearance in the diamond pavilion. This cut beautifully displays the original transparency of the diamond due to having a large rectangular table, which creates more effect and color.
Radiant: Radiant cut diamonds have unique modified corners that combine the lines of an emerald cut with the shine of a round diamond. The shine of this diamond cut looks beautiful when combined with other types of diamond cuts.
Marquise: Marquise cut diamonds, with an emphasis on diamond size, are a great shape to maximize carat weight. Its unique shape makes its owner's hands and fingers look taller and slimmer. The overall design of a diamond is determined by its length-to-width ratio, which also provides an idea of the shape and appearance of the diamond.
Heart : The heart shape is a romantic symbol of love. The unique appearance of the heart helps to make it a sweet choice for all kinds of engagement rings and diamond jewelry.
Baguette : While Baguette Diamonds are not as good as a classic Brilliant Cut diamond, they act as accents or rings of eternity like this Blue Nile Diamond Eternity Ring. Their low cost makes you a low-cost alternative to other Step Cut diamonds such as Emerald Cut.
Oval: Oval cut diamonds have a classic look with a modern twist. This cut is popular in all kinds of jewelry, especially in engagement rings, which makes it easy to match with other jewelry. This is an incredible glow, similar to a bright round cut, but also has the advantage of highlighting tall and narrow finders.
Cushion: Sometimes called a pillow cut diamond, a cushion cut is an endless cut that got its name because of its pillow-like shape. Cut diamonds have flawless shine and sharpness thanks to larger rounded corners. These diamonds are available in square and rectangular shapes.
Princess: Princess cut diamonds are available in both square and rectangular shapes and are extremely brilliant due to the way they are cut. The color emitted from the princess cut diamonds is very unique. While the color of the other diamonds is mainly displayed in the center, the princess cut diamonds also show a distinct color in each corner.
Asscher Cut : Asscher cut diamonds are often confused with emerald cuttings because of their similar cutting style. However, a collector in front of a rectangle is square. Created in the early 1920s, it has recently lost its popularity, especially among celebrities.
Diamond is the birthstone of which month of the year ?
April - Diamonds: Diamonds are both a modern and a traditional birthstone for April.
Diamonds often lead to conflict, bloodshed and environmental degradation. Due to the moral, ethical and financial issues of diamonds, many people are looking for an alternative to diamonds for stones born in April.
Alexandrite is known as "Emerald by day, ruby by night" because it has one of the most dramatic color changes among gemstones, such as green in sunlight and red in incandescent light. The very precious habit of alexandrite color change is caused by the presence of minor impurities in the element chromium. The most desirable Alexandrite colors are those that have a very clear color change.