ruby is a pink to blood-red coloured gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum . ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, together with amethyst, sapphire, emerald, and diamond.
opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica. because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classify as minerals.
jade refers to an ornamental mineral, often known for its green types, though appears naturally in other colors as well, especially yellow and white. jade can refer to either of two different silicate minerals: nephrite, or jadeite.