emerald is a gemstone and a type of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. emerald in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE.
Amber is a fossilized tree resin that has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.
amethyst is a violet variety of quartz. the name comes from a greek word, a refered to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. the ancient greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.